Saturday, March 28, 2009


System Investigation Concepts
Problem is difference (gap) between system purposes and condition of the system be in fact, with other understanding why do system fail to reach the system purpose which have been determined before all.
To know the things any kind of do which have caused failure of system, hence a analyst better do the investigation in advance before conducting action to improve the system. With investigation, a analyst will be more comprehend his system path and problem more circumstantial, though in detect problem have been known the problems but still depict its outline.
Many reports in detecting the problem might not really indissoluble or real. Possible mentioned because of:
a. The purpose too difficult ideal so that or might not will reach.
b. System cannot be developed for want of resource, attitude or both.
c. Measurement of inaccurate system.
d. Statement of system purpose which have under developed (statement of goals is dated).
e. Difference between ideal systems and system is in this time in character whereas (the gap between the ideal and the current system is temporary and will decrease given patience).
In phase problem solving, better give the explanation concerning:
a. Formulation of the system condition walking passing activity of investigation in detail.
b. Get the ideal system consensus.
c. Develop some alternatives to lessen difference (gap) between ideal systems with is system walk.
d. Choose the best alternative and sell it to management.
Duty start point b shall d will eat the sufficient time including the expense required. Intention of investigation is to setle or show the problem be in fact happened beside as mode a analyst to understand his system exhaustively.

Constraint in system of investigation
In doing the investigation there are some resistances or constraint to happened, that is problem of:
a. Time
Analyst lack time resource, so that only doing some of activities of investigation. Usually time relate to the required expense problem.
b. Cost
Oftentimes released expense relate to the duration time for activity investigation, so that management will give the constrain expense of.
c. Knowledge
Manager information system give order to the junior analyst which not yet owned technical membership or the knowledge enough, so that will affect the investigation result less sharpen, bake or complete.
d. Politics
Certain management sides or possibly propagate the issues of the purpose to pursue activity of investigation.
e. Interference
Is there are of the sides trying the interference or arrange in activity investigation so that will hellion or raise a bobber.
Result of investigation is a recommendation, what one of them is as follows :
a. Don't bring an action against any because is not found the problem.
The mentioned can happened because possibly in preliminary report, problem of him pretended so that at the time of done the problems investigation don't happened or don't be found.
b. Do conservancy of system to problems the smallness.
Conservancy of done system every day (short period) will assist the minimization problems which emerge so that quickly to be handled and always controlled well.
c. Improve ability or skilled of user in running or use the information system.
d. Allow for the system modification totalize, so that idea require to change it with new system.
e. Place the problem that happened at the system development plan is soon done.

Tactics of investigation
a. Listen, do note lecture.
If you know all answers, sure you will not do the investigation.
In activity of investigation better give enough time for management side or user to explicate and clearly and system analyst doesn't predominating of discussion.
b. Don't give the resolving early to problem (do not presolve the problem).
Mean don't try to show the idea to solve problem, before all activity of investigation is completed done, so that avoid the solutions blow by blow.
c. Compare stories.
People mean to differ the view to same problem, so that require to entangle supervisor and subordinate in opening on to the problem clearly and reliably. Shall not listen from 1 source so that there's only one view (opinion). When user have difference of view, better look for his difference and then look for the view have equality.
d. Look for reluctant responses.
Disinclination give something that indication comments hidden. Too much system problems can also cause confusion so that unable to explicate.
e. Probe for logical inconsistencies.
Logical inconsistencies is stop flow data where the data lose, or suddenly emerge the selected data. Some matters related to this problem:
- There is data enter him but there no output (black hole).
- There is output but there no input data (miracles).
f. Observe your effect.
Observe difference of user when you attend and moment you is absent. Assessment is is directly referred with internal probe. Is while external probe is done assessment undetected by whoever (searching external of material), be like by report analysis, history problem former, and source of investigation secondary other.
g. Expect hard, bowling work.
Become the patient and professional detective in handling problems of system bertahap.dan continually.
h. Avoid politics.
Analyst system mission fact is not judging (your mission is fact, not judgement).

Technique of investigation
Technique of investigation covering activity:
a. Directly ( direct ( internal) probes)
That is to know directly what is going on in user environment. They permit you to observe direct it without through selected sides (interpreter). Internal probes is the source of chaos (disruptive), because arising difference of attitude. Internal probes used as rich (a richer) and group justifier from fact that happened (truer group of facts). There are three technique to do the direct investigation, that is with:
- Questionnaires.
This technique precise very, if in investigation have the expense and time constraint. Though get it from respond through form stuffing. As for things in questionnaire condition of explanation will differ if look in the face directly (face to face interview).
Best matter from questionnaire is as document able to show differences that happened at responder.
- Interview.
This activity required the specialty and time. Everybody can not do the question and answer successfully. Interview question can applicable to successive exhaustively beside more flexible as according to field condition. Constraint the faced is time and specialty.
- Observation.
Is internal probe the strength (a powerful internal probe).
Sit down with user of system by doing the perception with the question more specific. Why you do this activity?
or where this document will be removed ?. Every question possibly can show the mysterious trouble-shooting.
b. Indirect (external) probes
Activity able to be done swiftly and invisible of operational personal, so with this can know the external side or something that hidden from user community. This activity will predominate in the early of activity SDLC, internal hereinafter probe to deepen.
- Procedure flow.
Procedure operational is medium (vehicles) for officer is newly understand his work and experience of employees to handle the problem.
If procedure flow not true, information system cannot be operated correct also. Use system flowchart to trace the way information as explanation procedure his operation.
If is problems of procedure, the problem possibly will arise in the operational be in fact.
- Document review.
Is by getting and collect the important document (critical document). If problem happened many in customer orders, collect the original document source from customer orders which used as by the entry data, interactive screen format, detail transaction, summary and mistake of report that happened. Document is oftentimes become the cause of problem.
- Sampling.
You require information from vendor billing which have given the discount at the time of payment, because company of discount moment money loss is not given on the happening of delay of payment.
You can entangle customers of payer to get the information (despite of many transactions). Finally you can list sample data with election random for the one of last week, choose 20 page of daily transaction, choose 5 item from each chosen page, record the information to each 5 item and count average and variant to samples from all payment transactions that happened.
- Tabular tools
Referred also matrix, that is checklists to find discrepancies in transaction path

Description system is in this time
Determine the system performance in this time will find difficulties if company don't have a standard measurement of system performance.
What a pity, company tend to don't renew (to update) the system documentation walking. Hence, analyst improve the document during investigation problem of system.
Description system is in this time cover the explanation:
a. Inputs
b. Outputs
c. Files
d. Data elements
e. Transaction and action document volume
f. Data flow diagrams

Requirement analysis.
intensive Interaction phase between system analysts with end user where system development team show his membership to get the comments and trust of user so that get the good participation.
4 Purpose which want Reachable:
- Explain the complete system.
- Depict the ideal information system.
- Bring the ideal information system to condition in this time by paying attention the resource constraint.
- Give the motivation to confidence of user into system development.

Phase requirement analysis is intensive interaction phase between system analysts with community user of system (end-user), where team system development show his membership to get the comments and trust of user, so that get the good participation. Is work difficult to get agreement (skeptical) user concerning their requirement from a information system, because possibly natural user failure of information system before all.

Desire of user
Early stage in requirement system is do survey to desire of user and explain the ideal information system.
Ideal here is conceptual than reality, mean that there is no perfect information system but having the character of subject. If this matter is not explained exhaustively can generate difference of view or will disappoint end-user.

Method requirement of analysis
Election of data collecting method require to correct during doing requirement system. The method is interviews, questionnaires, observation, procedure analysis, and document survey.
- Interview.
1. How that method is used.
• Election potential interviewees.
• Make agreement to potential interviewees.
• Prepare the complete question structure and clearly.
• Choose person which be interviewed personally and record it.
2. Goals of method.
• Personal key in course of DFD.
• sometimes entangle the outsider, be like customer or vendors.
3. Advantage of method.
• Interviewer can measure respond through question and accommodate it according to situation that happened.
• Good to the problems don't structure, be like why you think this matter can happened?
• Show impression interviewer personally.
• Peeped out the high response since compilation of meeting.
4. Loss of method.
• Require the expense and time by dozens.
• Require the special experience and training of interviewer.
• Difficult compare the report interview because subjective natural.
5. When is the method good used
• Get the explanation or view from personal key.
• Test credibility from interviewees.
• Look for interview which contradictions.
• Stabilize the credibility team.
Some important factors in interview the good, that is objectives, audience, format, weighting and combining responses, and documentation.
- Questionnaires.
1. How that method is used.
- Design by using standard questionnaire.
- Questionnaire delivered to environment work end-users.
- Structure respond summarized in distribution statistic.
2. Goals of method.
- All end-user with their horizon will be involved in the solution process resolving of system.
- End-User attributed to the process usage of symbols in DFD.
3. Advantage of method.
- Cheap and quickly from [at] interviews.
- Don't require investigator which train, only one required expert to design questionnaire to end-user chosen.
- Easy to predict the result of since making questionnaire.
- Easily minimization the expense of for all end-user.
4. Loss of method.
- Cannot make specific question for end-user.
- Cannot show the person end-user.
- Low comments for no of strong motivation to return questionnaire. Inadaptable of question to end-user specific.
5. When is the method of good to used.
- Simple It asking, and don't have the twinning meaning.
- Require the knowledge wide from end-user.
- If owning a few time and expense of.
- Observation.
1. How that method is used.
- Personally a analyst visit the perception location.
- Analyst record occurrence in perception location, including volume and processing of spread sheet.
2. Goals of method.
- Location process is geographically shown in DFD (Data Flow Diagram)
3. Advantage of method.
• Get the fact records than opinion.
• Don't require the question construction.
• Don't hellion or hide something (end-users don't know that are them perceived).
• Analyst don't base on the oral explanation from end-users.
4. Loss of method.
- If seen, analyst is possibly alter the operation (end-user feel to be perceived).
- On a long term, the fact obtained in one observation might not precisely (representative) daily in a condition weekly or.
- Require the experience and special expertise of analyst.
5. When is the method good to used.
- Require the quantitative picture be like time, volume etcetera.
- Suspicion that end-user tell a the occurrence be in fact don't happened (pretended).

Tip practical in doing the observation:
a. Don't perceive during old ones.
There are two reason, that is : with time old ones will in disorder operation which is is perceived, and will bias the problems be in fact.
b. Make the summarized note.
c. Before observation, advise to supervisor and user in concerned the things do would be done and why done, so that will lessen the trouble.
d. Use checklist the briefness concerning the information required with.
e. Don't do the observation without plan.
- Procedure Analysis.
1. How that method is used.
- With operating procedure can study and identify the document stream lock passing the information system, that is with data flow diagram (DFD).
- Every key document stream explain the system operating procedure.
- Through observation, analyst study reality than describe distribution volume (high, lower, medium) and what do is hereinafter done to copy of its genuine document.
2. Goals of method.
- Especial document in DFD (Data Flow Diagram)
- Process in DFD.
3. Advantage of method.
- Workable Procedure evaluation with interferences
- Minimum and don't influence the user operation.
- Stream procedure can become a structure checklist to do the observation.
4. Loss of method.
- Procedure might not complete and don't - up to date again.
- Study document stream schema require the time and membership of analyst.
5. When is the method good to used.
- Decide do problem failure of system can assist good scheme.
- Analyst team don't totalize familiar with document stream.
- Describe the document stream hellion activity of function.
- Document survey
1. How that method is used.
- Identify the especial document and report (physical data flow diagram).
- Collect the document copy actual and report.
- Each report or document, used to record data, cover the field ( type and measure), usage frequency and coding structure.
2. Goals of method.
- Data key stream shown in data flow diagram (DFD).
3. Advantage of method.
- Minimization interupt from his operational function.
- Start of data dictionary element.
- Oftentimes, can consider the fortunate modification procedural.
4. Loss of method.
- Require the enough time (there are natural business organization report and document floods).
5. When is the method good to used.
- Had to be done [by] if a system will designed (during activity of analysis, in clarifying design new system and document analysis can assist to determine the scheme duty hereinafter).

Sampling can assist to lessen the expense and time. Require to careful to choose sample from population, so that require membership of statistic so that is not experiencing of threat or failure.

• Time.
A anti system have to be phrased in framework since natural system of degradation of function swiftly. Constraint at the present time can influence the analyst to consider the technological innovation which is is impossible to be operated brief during. Therefore require to require the time enough so that have diffuseness of time so that can make the best alternative.
• Money.
Ideal information system will require the costly expense, so that require the enough financing. This matter there will be because happened emulation with his competitors where they inculcate the big investment in its information system.
• Expertise.
Staff information system might not have the enough experience or knowledge like telecommunications problem, database integration, and interactive setting. Company can contract the consultant to add design ability. This matter later will be given on to the released expense constraint for the energy of consultant.
• Technology.
Requirement of technology possibly will become the main problem in pick a back work the system, so that require to pay attention growth of continuous technology, which is his consequence happened expenditure of big expense and technology don't wearer of under developed from his competitors.
• Factor External.
Many incoming constraints from outside setting design, be like prevention use the exotic of technologies, prevent to look after the local data in a center database system, etcetera.

Document requirement of analysis:
- Analysis instruction: Relation with final user, perception of process, problem of data collecting.
- Requirement user: Actual requirement, report requirement, requirement of training and influence of new system.
- Constraint System: Explain the expense and time constraint, membership, technological and factor external.
- Document in the form of data collecting instrument, statistical consensus, data stream is in logical and physical, data element early in data dictionary.

How to draw near the system condition in this time with ideal system condition?
Make the alternative to solve problem the information system.
The best alternative is applied wise.

Choice Strategy
1) Distributed versus centralized processing
In this time, there is tendency happened change of decision of information from centralized data processing to decentralized end-user responsibility centers.
In environment process the distribution, end-user decide equipments, development priority and implementation.
In other shares there are growth of amount end-user which step into the computer world. They try the newest technology regardless of expense, and risk. Without membership, designer of system will stay in the conservative environment (fussy).
2) Integrated versus dispersed database
When organization use the database system spread over, designer of system have the consideration choice concerning file any kind of do the included in database and data any kind of do the entering in file. Integrated database handled by administrator the database look after all data controls storage, access and modification. Upstairs management decide as according to choice designer of system by paying attention the side amenity of his control.
3) Surround Strategy of System Development
Strategy system development is important because many companies have the heap (backlog) from new system which designed and condition of system which is is modified. This strategy permit designer of system use difference of programming language and run it [at] different computer to a system full compatibility (a totally compatible system). Environment around strategy is of vital importance in confiscation problem, where one company get possible and other company of its information system don't compatible with its (differ).

Tactics choice
Management decide now or later, change the modification opponent, and configuration SDLC. This election is done before operational choice.
Now or later
- Technology.
A technological breakthrough to needing consideration for a few years come.
- Cash flow.
Stream company cash condition require to to be considered in development or replacement of system.
- Resource membership.
In doing the system development require to to pay attention the good expert energies in concerned in his scheme and in his usage wait.
- Politic.
Many information systems is is in this time proposed by someone in company.
To one or more the reason of, information system department may choose to slow down the development or replacement of system.

Speed vs cost
Alternative information system is first time will be compared to quantitative usage expense. Hence designer has difficulty accommodate increase of speed in the form of cost-saving.

Choice concerning scheme of operational
Scheme choice grouped inside input, processing, and output.
Each group can have the choice as follows:
i. Input
1) On-Line versus off-line entry data.
Off-Line entry data don't have the ability good to validation transaction immediately. Therefore, on-line [of] entry data suggested is fixed used in information system configuration.
2) Keyed versus machine-readable entry data.
Machine-Readable entry data can improve speed, lessen mistake of inclusion of data, and cost effective for worker (save human costs). Anyway requiring the big investment in the case of equipments and its conservancy.
3) Centralized versus decentralized entry data.
Decentralized entry is quicker but his mistake level is high because many the users enter the data. Machine-Readable entry require inclusion of the decentralization give advantage of speed of process in catching the data source (point of sale).
ii. Processing
4) Batch versus real-time record update.
Batch processing cause the update record old, suited for centralized entry data. Real time processing require the equipments expense and boost up speed of process.
5) Sequential versus direct access to records.
Sequential access is relating to the batch processing.
Direct access relate to real-time processing.
6) Single versus multiple-user update of records.
A design system to multiple-user more complicated in security access and update record simultaneity. Complication happened the moment speed of process is important and his application with process - real time.
iii. Output
7) Traditional versus turnaround documents.
Traditional document is document of its data way to system through key input. Turnaround documents is data to system through machine reader of document.
8) Structured versus inquiry-based reports.
Structured report made in standard format and provided routine, is while inquiry-based reports made pursuant to request with format according to request of user. Often inquiry-base report found in environment real-time where data have to be accessed quickly.

Comparison tactics
System compared to pursuant to expense and advantage relatively. Expense is requirement of payment for designer and operation information system.
Advantage is assessing or additional condition as information system implementation result. The things including lessening the error rates, increased customer sales, and quicken the time respond. Advantage is difficult something that measured because having the character of qualitative (is not in the form of number only descriptive).
Improve satisfaction of consumer and lessen end-user resistance is advantage qualitative. Advantage is opportunity to improve advantage of company.
There is three way of one system (A) can more pre-eminent compared to the other system (B).
1. Have the expense which is low to be compared to B, and both system have [is] same advantage.
2. Have the expense which is low to be compared to B, and A also have the advantage more compared to B.
3. A and B have same expense, but A have the advantage more.

Some Methods Comparative System
There is the 4 method commonly use to compare two or more information system, that is:
• Break Even point Analyisis
• Payback Period
• Discounted PayBack period
• Internal Rate of Return

Category of is expense of
Basically the expense of divided into the category:
a. Hardware: mainframe, minicomputers, microcomputers, and peripheral equipment.
b. Software: systems, utility, and application software.
c. People: analysts, programmers, operators, data enter personnel, etcetera.
d. Supplies: paper, tapes, disk, etcetera.
e. Telecommunications: modem, local area network cabling, multiplexors, front-end processors, etcetera.
f. Physical site: irrigate conditioning, humidity control, security, etcetera.

Nature of costs
Compare the information system expense through life of system, projection analyst how many is change of expense for the future. To do so, there is three information system operating expenses model, that is:
a. Linear.
b. Exponential.
c. Step function.

Cost information system can just happened once and can also happened chronically.
Cost information system that happened once that is ontime cost and development cost that happened system development moment.
Expense information system that happened continually among its are reccuring cost and also operational cost where this expense happened the information system moment operate every day.

Factor Information system
Some factors is qualitative which instructing the good information system performance:
a. Lessen the mistake level (increased accuracy).
b. Lessen the time to improve mistake.
c. Lessen the time listen carefully from workstation interactive.
d. Quicken the ready time of report (information).
e. Improve system security.
f. Multiply the updates of source of record active.
g. Improve the user fasting.
Some the factors measurable, but don't in money.

Strategy company factor
Information system can make advantage in company. Improve advantage in this time any way is difficult to be estimated. Increase profit often times don't happened suddenly, but happened the some years after implementation of new system.
When two system alternative come near equality of comparison, open door to consider the company strategy factor.

There are the company strategy factors, that is:
1. Customer satisfaction.
An information system can cause carefulness submit the efficient desire and product [of] consumer. Improve satisfaction of consumer will no doubt improve the sale. Be like improvement of sale, any way difficult to be predicted and quantitative.
2. Increased sales.
System point of sales (POS) struck from depository of duties record. Management hope the sale staff faith full to time of effort marketing and this improve the sale. But sale will improve difficulty predicted in money.
3. Customer and vendor commitments.
Company is do design online system input and enable the direct consumer access to his system. Consumer is now locked (depended) at this system so that have commitment to be devoted (like) at the company. Commitment consumer and vendor difficult to be predicted.
4. Information product marketing.
Oftentimes, usable new information system by other company. Be like American Airline provide the product marketing information system during year of 1970, company develop a system ordering of ticket and then this marketing system is also used by other air transport service, so that become the beneficial product.

Do the presentation in a word but can explain all point in presentation items, so that hearer doesn't fell bored with long explanation.
Lessen explanation of technique in detail, this done because usually participant of presentation have known the usage of technique in general and remain to be explained why do using the mentioned and what is its benefit.
Present clearly by means of model assist visually, so that hearer can easier conceive what do is presented.
If using the model use the appliance assist for example. laptop so that more informative.
Emphasize advantage of information system proposal. with a few the alternatives according to natural by the condition of company.
No-go decision
Top management have to decide to continue (go) by developing the new information system or slow down or frown on the system development (no-go). If decision of upstairs management set mind on to develop the system, departmental [of] information system start process design (scheme) the next phase. If top management frown on the new information system proposal, hence systems development life cycle (SDLC) discontinued. Decision seldom simple as that. Often, top management find the problem with system study.
Serious insufficient problem cause the stop project, but they ask the reactivity (rework system study). This decision is basis for waterwall model of systems analysis. Model explain some repeated step shareses. Sometime, information system department make decision to repeat the step (repeat stages) before explaining (presenting) system study. With alternative, repeat a step SDLC before all or not to speak of with go / no-go decision. If top management agree development of new information system proposal, the next phase in SDLC is system design.

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